Differences between HyperLedger Fabric and COSMOS

1. Validators and Their Recruitment:

- HyperLedger Fabric: In versions up to 2.5, validators (or nodes) are appointed by network administrators. This makes the system more centralized and manageable, suitable for corporate solutions. Validators in HyperLedger Fabric can be divided into several types: orderers, responsible for ordering transactions, and peer nodes, which execute smart contracts and store data. Recruiting new validators requires administrative intervention and agreement among network participants. However, starting from version 3.0, it is possible to implement a decentralized public network based on the following principles:

- The network is managed by organizations that control the orderers.

- Orderers will be managed by the SmartBFT consensus, solving the Byzantine Generals problem.

- An overlay on HLF will allow managing the addition/removal of organizations/validators based on BFT consensus.

- Validators will be able to service channels raised in the network.

- Thanks to the randomization algorithm (see article https://easychair.org/proceedings/paper.cgi?a=30984425&paper=615938), endorsers can significantly increase network performance and ensure efficient validation of tens of thousands of channels with a limited number of validators.

- Thus, the same validators can support multiple independent blockchains without loss of speed.

- COSMOS: In COSMOS, validators are chosen based on staking ATOM tokens. Anyone can become a validator if they have enough tokens, making the system more decentralized. Validators in COSMOS participate in the consensus process and ensure network security. Recruiting new validators happens automatically through the staking mechanism, where users can delegate their tokens to existing validators or become validators themselves. However, it should be noted that when a new blockchain appears within COSMOS, new validators will need to be recruited.

2. Speed Parameters and Finalization:

- HyperLedger Fabric: Transaction speed depends on the network configuration and the consensus algorithm used. With the addition of SmartBFT in version 3.0, improvements in transaction speed and finalization are expected. Current versions of HyperLedger Fabric can process up to thousands of transactions per second (TPS) depending on the configuration. Transaction finalization time also varies but can range from fractions of a second to minutes. This makes HLF suitable for applications requiring high performance and fast transaction confirmation.

- COSMOS: Uses the Tendermint consensus algorithm, which provides high transaction speed and quick finalization. Tendermint can process up to thousands of TPS and ensures transaction finalization within a few seconds. This also makes COSMOS suitable for applications requiring high performance and fast transaction confirmation.

3. Ability to Interact with External Systems from Smart Contracts:

- HyperLedger Fabric: Supports interaction with external systems through Chaincode, allowing blockchain integration with existing IT systems. Chaincode can call external APIs and interact with databases, making it a flexible tool for integration.

- COSMOS: Smart contracts in COSMOS (via CosmWasm) can also interact with external systems, but this requires additional settings and integrations. CosmWasm supports external API calls through special modules, but this may require additional efforts for setup and security.

4. Ecosystem and Support:

- HyperLedger Fabric: Supported by the Linux Foundation and has a broad ecosystem of corporate partners. HyperLedger Fabric is part of the HyperLedger Project, which includes several other blockchain platforms and tools. This provides extensive support and access to various resources and tools for development and integration.

- COSMOS: Has an active developer community and is supported by the Interchain Foundation. The ecosystem includes numerous projects built on the COSMOS SDK. COSMOS is actively developed and supported by the community, ensuring continuous improvement and expansion of functionality. Projects like Terra, Kava, and Band Protocol are part of the COSMOS ecosystem and demonstrate its potential for creating decentralized applications.

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